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α-Pinene is an organic compound of the terpene class, one of two isomers of pinene. It is an alkene and it contains a reactive four-membered ring. It is found in the oils of many species of many coniferous trees, notably the pine. It is also found in the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Satureja myrtifolia (also known as Zoufa in some regions.) Both enantiomers are known in nature; (1S,5S)- or (−)-α-pinene is more common in European pines, whereas the (1R,5R)- or (+)-α-isomer is more common in North America. The racemic mixture is present in some oils such as eucalyptus oil and orange peel oil.
beta-Pinene (β-pinene) is a monoterpene, an organic compound found in plants. It is one of the two isomers of pinene, the other being α-pinene. It is colorless liquid soluble in alcohol, but not water. It has a woody-green pine-like smell.
This is one of the most abundant compounds released by forest trees. If oxidized in air, the allylic products of the pinocarveol and myrtenol family prevail.
Myrcene, or β-myrcene, is an olefinic natural organic hydrocarbon. It is more precisely classified as a monoterpene. Monoterpenes are dimers of isoprenoid precursors, and myrcene is a significant component of the essential oil of several plants, including bay, cannabis, ylang-ylang, wild thyme, parsley, cardamom, and hops. It is produced mainly semi-synthetically from myrcia, from which it gets its name. It is a key intermediate in the production of several fragrances. α-Myrcene is the name for the structural isomer 2-methyl-6-methylene-1,7-octadiene, which is not found in nature and is little used.
Limonene is a clear, colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in oil of citrus fruit peels. The D-isomer occurring more commonly in nature as the fragrance of oranges is a flavoring agent in food manufacturing. It is also used in chemical synthesis as a precursor to carvone and as a renewables-based solvent in cleaning products. The less common L-isomer is found in mint oils and has a piney, turpentine-like odor.
Limonene takes its name from the peel of the lemon. Limonene is a chiral molecule, and biological sources produce one enantiomer: the principal industrial source, citrus fruit, contains D-limonene ((+)-limonene), which is the (R)-enantiomer. Racemic limonene is known as dipentene. D-Limonene is obtained commercially from citrus fruits through two primary methods: centrifugal separation or steam distillation.
Linalool ( or ) refers to two enantiomers of a naturally occurring terpene alcohol found in many flowers and spice plants. These have multiple commercial applications, the majority of which are based on its pleasant scent (floral, with a touch of spiciness). It has other names such as β-linalool, linalyl alcohol, linaloyl oxide, p-linalool, allo-ocimenol, and 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol.
Terpineol is a monoterpene alcohol that has been isolated from a variety of sources such as cajuput oil, pine oil, and petitgrain oil. There are four isomers, alpha-, beta-, gamma-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol. beta- and gamma-terpineol differ only by the location of the double bond. Terpineol is usually a mixture of these isomers with alpha-terpineol as the major constituent.
Terpineol has a pleasant odor similar to lilac and is a common ingredient in perfumes, cosmetics, and flavors. α-Terpineol is one of the two most abundant aroma constituents of lapsang souchong tea; the α-terpineol originates in the pine smoke used to dry the tea. (+)-α-Terpineol is a chemical constituent of skullcap.
Caryophyllene , or (−)-β-caryophyllene, is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of many essential oils, especially clove oil, the oil from the stems and flowers of Syzygium aromaticum (cloves), the essential oil of Cannabis sativa, rosemary, and hops. It is usually found as a mixture with isocaryophyllene (the cis double bond isomer) and α-humulene (obsolete name: α-caryophyllene), a ring-opened isomer. Caryophyllene is notable for having a cyclobutane ring, as well as a trans-double bond in a 9-membered ring, both rarities in nature.
The first total synthesis of caryophyllene in 1964 by E.J. Corey was considered one of the classic demonstrations of the possibilities of synthetic organic chemistry at the time.
Caryophyllene is one of the chemical compounds that contributes to the spiciness of black pepper.